Gapfill Summaries – General Advice

  • Gap-fill summaries usually focus on just one or two paragraphs, so you don’t need to look through the whole text.
  • The summary usually has a HEADING – this helps you quickly find the paragraph(s) with the answers.
  • The gaps are words taken from the text – so even if you don’t know what all the words mean, you can find them!
  • The gaps are usually in the same order as they appear in the original text.
  • The sentences surrounding the gaps use SYNONYMS to summarise the paragraph, and these synonyms will lead you to the right answer.

9 tips for gap-fill summaries

1) Use the text TITLE to work out the structure of the whole Reading.

e.g. What destroyed the civilisation of Easter Island?

This title of the text tells us to expect an answer.

In this text we have different theories from different specialists.

2) Use the SUMMARY HEADING to find the right paragraph

The heading of the Gapped Summary gives us ONE answer to the title’s question: it tells us Jared Diamond’s View.

Use CAPITAL LETTERS e.g. in this example, the name ‘Jared Diamond’ helps us quickly find the paragraph which has Diamond’s view.

3) Use synonyms and parallel language.

Look around the gap for synonyms to help you find the sentences which contain the answer.

4) Decide what type of word you need. Do you need a verb, noun, adjective or number?

5) Use your general knowledge to make quick ‘educated’ guesses.

6) Make sure you always keep the ‘s’ on plural forms.

7) Copy the words exactly as they appear in the text (don’t lose points for spelling)

8) The words usually come in the same order as they appear in the text, so don’t waste time looking for answers in different places.

9) Always check how many words you are allowed.

10) Make sure that the word or words you choose fit grammatically e.g. in 21 below, ‘clearing land for farm* would be grammatically incorrect.

BOOTCAMP BONUS: Academic Part 1

Crop-growing skyscrapers (Book 11 Test 1 Passage 1)

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer

INDOOR FARMING

The concept of indoor farming is not new, since hothouse production of tomatoes and other produce has been in vogue for some time.

1     Some food plants, including ____________are already grown indoors.

One such proposal is for the ‘Vertical Farm’. The concept is of multi-storey buildings in which food crops are grown in environmentally controlled conditions. Situated in the heart of urban centres, they would drastically reduce the amount of transportation required to bring food to consumers.

2    Vertical farms would be located in ________________ meaning that there would be less need to take them long distances to customers.

Although the system would consume energy, it would return energy to the grid via methane generation from composting non-edible parts of plants.

3    Vertical farms could use methane from plants to produce ______________.

It would also dramatically reduce fossil fuel use, by cutting out the need for tractors, ploughs and shipping.

4    The consumption of  _______________would be cut because agricultural vehicles would be unnecessary.

A major drawback of vertical farming, however, is that the plants would require artificial light.

5    The fact that vertical farms would need _________________ light is a disadvantage.

One variation on vertical farming that has been developed is to grow plants in stacked trays that move on rails.

6     One form of vertical farming involves planting in ________________  which are not fixed.

While it is possible that much of our food will be grown in skyscrapers in future, most experts currently believe it is far more likely that we will simply use the space available on urban rooftops.

7    The most probable development is that food will be grown on ______________ in towns and cities.

Click here for the answers

1    Some food plants, including tomatoes are already grown indoors.

2    Vertical farms would be located in urban centres meaning that there would be less need to take them long distances to customers.

3    Vertical farms could use methane from plants to produce energy.

4    The consumption of fossil fuel would be cut because agricultural vehicles would be unnecessary.

5    The fact that vertical farms would need artificial light is a disadvantage.

6    One form of vertical farming involves planting in (stackable) trays which are not fixed.

7    The most probable development is that food will be grown on rooftops in towns and cities.

BOOTCAMP BONUS: GT Passage 2  (GT Bk12 T5 P2b)

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the text for each answer. 

Working Time Regulations for Mobile Workers 

These rules apply to drivers and crew of heavy goods vehicles or public service vehicles. The  rules limit the amount of time that can be worked. 

Those defined in the Regulations as being self-employed are currently not covered by the Regulations. 

What are the limits? 

  • An average of 48 hours’ work per week. 
  • In any single week up to 60 hours can be worked so long as the 48-hour average is maintained. 
  • Night work is limited to 10 hours per night, unless there is a workforce agreement to work longer. 
  • Statutory annual leave and any sick leave and/or maternity/paternity leave counts as working time. 

What counts as work? 

In general, any activities performed in connection with the transport operation count as work, for example, driving, loading/unloading and those checks that are the responsibility of drivers, such as checking lights, brakes, etc. There are a number of periods of time that do not count as work, for example, travelling between home and your normal place of work, lunch or other breaks and periods of availability. 

Periods of availability are periods of time during which the mobile worker is not required to remain at their workstation but is required to be available for work, the foreseeable duration of which is known about in advance, for example: 

  • Delays at a distribution centre. 
  • Reporting for work then being informed that no duties are to be undertaken for a specified period.
  • Accompanying a vehicle being transported, for example by train. 

A period of availability can be taken at the workstation. Providing the worker has a reasonable amount of freedom (e.g. they can read and relax) for a known duration, this could satisfy the requirements of a period of availability. 

Situations when a period of time should not be recorded as a period of availability: 

  • Hold-ups due to congestion, because the driver would be stopping and starting the vehicle. 
  • Frequently moving up within a queue (e.g. waiting within a queue to load or unload) every other minute. 

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the text for each answer. 

Working Time Regulations for Mobile Workers 

These apply to people working on lorries, buses, etc. 

They don’t apply to 21.________________ workers. 

Maximum working hours: 60 hours a week, provided the 22.__________is no more than 48 hours. 

Night work can be more than 10 hours with the 23.___________________of the workers. 

Work includes driving, loading and unloading, and carrying out various 24._______________ of the vehicle. 

Periods of availability include: 

going on a 25.____________________or other form of transport with a vehicle 

a period at the workstation when the driver has some 26.______________might count as a period of availability 

 Periods of availability exclude: 

time spent stopping and starting the vehicle when 27.___________causes delays 

Click here for the answers

They don’t apply to 21. self-employed workers. 

Maximum working hours: 60 hours a week, provided the 22. average is no more than 48 hours. 

Night work can be more than 10 hours with the 23. agreement of the workers. 

Work includes driving, loading and unloading, and carrying out various 24. checks of the vehicle. 

Periods of availability include: 

going on a 25. train or other form of transport with a vehicle 

a period at the workstation when the driver has some 26. freedom might count as a period of availability 

Periods of availability exclude: 

time spent stopping and starting the vehicle when 27. congestion causes delays 

being in a queue, e.g. in order to load or unload 

How the lesson will help:

This lesson helps you focus on:

– finding the relevant paragraphs

– using parallel language

– ‘doubling’ (see video)

in a discursive (theory-evidence) type text.

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Why you need to do it:

Gap fill summaries are easier when they’re limited to one or two paragraphs. Just:

– use the whole sentence to find synonyms

– copy exact words (watch for plurals)

 

 

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What you need to do:

1. This gap-fill is just 2 paragraphs from the whole text, so just watch the video and pause where necessary.

 

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